DGM 2012 Part 3: Stockport

A range of the Minton floor tiles excavated at Wood Hall in October 2012

A range of the Minton floor tiles excavated at Wood Hall in October 2012

In October the DGM team arrived in Stockport to excavate the site of Wood Hall and its farm. Wood Hall lies 1.5km north of the modern town centre of Stockport, on the first terrace above the western bank of the River Tame. It encompassed two sites; the house known as Wood Hall and the adjacent Wood Hall Farm. There was even a reference to the hall 1501/2, suggesting that it might be medieval origin.

The site had already been evaluated through test-pitting by volunteers from the South Manchester Archaeological Research Team led by Norman Redhead in April 2012. In one day they dug seven test-pits and discovered brick walls and floors. So, in October 2012 DGM came back for a 14-day stint to explore the site further. In that time a variety of community groups and individuals took part in the excavations including: 102 adult volunteers; 280 school Stockport school children from 10 schools; eight Stockport ‘A’ level students; 19 graduate and post-graduates; seven special groups; and 237 visitors on the open day.

This particular site highlighted one of the three key research areas for the project: the archaeology of industrialisation, and, within that, charting the industrial transition though its material culture.

There was no sign of the Medieval Hall, and no hint that it was close by. The current site seems to have been founded in the 18th century. Extensive brick and stone foundations were uncovered for the hall farmhouse and its associated barn range to the west. These dated to the late 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. The hall was a double-depth, central staircase, plan house popular with freeholders and used for the richer sort of farmhouse in the 18th century, and popular with the growing middle-class of the 19th century.

The earliest evidence uncovered by the dig was clay pipes from the 17th century (tobacco was a new form of consumer good/vice at the time). The large number of clay pipe fragments ran into the 19th century. Here was evidence of the growing global trade network of this period; the clay pipes themselves were made in the region (Chester has an early kiln from the late 17th century, and Manchester pipe kilns by the 18th century) but the tobacco was imported from plantations in the West Indies and elsewhere.

There was also a large amount of industrial pottery from the late 18th to the early 20th centuries. This included large numbers of earthenware, black-glazed, storage jars, perhaps from the Buckley potteries in north-east Wales and the rapidly developing Staffordshire potteries of the 18th and early 19th centuries. Domestic wares took the form of white transfer-printed bowls, plates and dishes, and a few pieces of China (cups and saucers), probably from Staffordshire rather than overseas. There were also bottles and storage jars stamped with local trader’s names (H Clark of Stockport for instance). Most surprising were the highly decorated glazed floor tiles, manufactured by Minton, of Stoke-on-Trent. These were of floral and geometric designs and motifs typical of the art-nouveau period of the late 19th century, and were found around some of the fireplaces but also stacked up on the cellar steps. Perhaps the latter had been put aside for salvage during the mid-20th century demolition but were forgotten about at the last moment?

It’s from such everyday items that the local, national, and international networks of the industrial period can be traced and mapped.

DGM 2012 Part 1: Radcliffe

Visitors to the Radcliffe DGM open day in July 2012 - one of the few times we saw the sun in 2012!

Visitors to the Radcliffe DGM open day in July 2012 – one of the few times we saw the sun in 2012!

With Dig Greater Manchester well into its second year (and community digs in Manchester, Salford and Rochdale looming) we thought we would take the opportunity to bring you the highlights from last year’s four community digs. So, over the next two weeks we will be posting blogs on each.

In July 2012 DGM came to Radcliffe in Bury: to be precise, the area between Radcliffe’s two oldest buildings – the 15th century Radcliffe Tower and the 15th century parish church.
   During the first two weeks of July the remains of a row of seven cottages were excavated on the southern side of Church Street (formerly Church Row). These cottages were built in the mid-19th century and demolished in the mid-20th century so had a life-span of around 100 years. More than 170 volunteers and 290 children helped to reveal the outline of each cottage and its backyard. These were small brick dwellings, with in most cases just a single living room on the ground floor with a fireplace. Most of the rear yards also had an outhouse with a toilet which in each case produced dozens of small pieces of Victorian pottery.
   It was whilst the backyard of the eastern cottage, No. 200, was being dug that a small bronze oval token was discovered amongst some late Victorian pottery and clay pipes. Roughly 20mm by 30mm, one side had an image of a lady and the other some flowers with a star. Around the edge of one side of the token was the inscription ‘Congregation of the Children of Mary’, indicating that it belonged to a Catholic.
   The Congregation was founded as a result of a series of visions experienced by St Catherine Laboure in 1830, and was a lay order. At first it was open to the girls who were students or orphans in the care of The Sisters of Charity.1 Girls and young women in the society were encouraged to live holy lives in the everyday world by embracing the virtues of sacrifice, prayer and works of charity. In 1876 membership was extended to include all young people, boys and girls, and a version of the society survives into the early 21st century. Newly joined individuals would be given a bronze or silver medallion as a sign of membership, on which to inscribe their name and the date they joined.
   The Radcliffe token is a typical example of a Children of Mary medallion. The obverse side of the medallion shows an image of the Blessed Virgin Mary with ‘rays of grace’ that emanate from the rings she wares. A motto ‘monstra te esse matrem’ (show thyself a mother), can be seen around the edge and is a phrase taken from the 9th century devotional hymn ‘Ave Maris Stella’ (Hail, Star of the Sea).
   The reverse shows the Ave Maria monogram with lilies and a star above. The inscription ‘Congregation of the Children of Mary’ runs around the edge, and there is a panel for the member’s name. Sadly the Radcliffe name panel was blank – perhaps it had been worn away?
   Radcliffe in the late 19th century and early 20th century was a diverse town. Living in the streets close by during the 1890s and 1900s were Dutch, Irish, and Welsh, although the majority of the inhabitants of this growing cotton town were born in Lancashire. The census returns for Church Row/Street show that all the inhabitants of the seven cottages were Lancashire-born. Who, then, was the owner of the medallion? It might be one of the Morgan family recorded living at No. 200 in the 1891 and 1901 censuses, but we can’t be sure. This object was certainly a highly personal item for a young adult, probably a girl, living at the end of the 19th century. Such a personal religious item is a highly unusual discovery from houses of this period in the Manchester region, and how it came to be lost or thrown away in the backyard is unknown. Archaeology can only take us so far in revealing the history of an object, even one from the recent past.

1) St Catherine Laboure’s religious order.

Dig Greater Manchester – Wigan Borough Update on the Results of the Excavation

The first Dig Greater Manchester fieldwork was carried out between 1st and 17th March 2012 with the first two taken up with opening the site and ensuring safety for volunteers and the last two for reinstating the site and removing the fencing and site cabins etc. This left 12 days of excavations by local volunteers and educational visits.

Initial stripping of the site, saw the removal of top soil and overburden was removed using a mechanical excavator under the directions of Centre for Applied Archaeology staff. Three large trenches with another three smaller trenches were opened across areas that were thought to contain archaeological remains of the farmhouse and outbuilding and the ‘imposing new house’ built by Thomas Jones in 1826. This initial stripping of the trenches, although revealing an amount of archaeological remains in the form of brick walls and floor surfaces, was felt to be a little disappointing in quantity and quality.

The main archaeological focus of the excavations were to locate, assess and record the remains of the post 1825 development of the site and to attempt to determine the relationship of those building with the late 18th and early 19th century structures. A further aim of the evaluation was to locate and assess the possibility of early possible medieval habitation of the site. This was suggested by the shape of the enclosed area shown on several maps and from a small amount of late medieval pottery discovered in a ditch-like feature during an earlier evaluation trench in 2006. Unfortunately no further evidence of the medieval stage was discovered apart from a few pieces of mid- late 17th century pottery

However, following excellent work by the volunteers, who spent many hours delicately trowelling the soils away to reveal a pattern of brick walls that formed several rooms, of at least three different buildings, that at first impressions were the 19th century farmhouse and its adjoining outbuildings surrounding a courtyard. These remains contained several phases of construction with the bricks indicating dates of early 19th to early 20th century.

Floor surfaces were also uncovered and took the form of quarry tiles in the western range to large stone flags in the eastern range. Although on these types of site many artefacts in the form of pottery are a feature, the volume of such artefacts at Etherstone Hall was unusual. They took the form of mostly pottery sherds, with a date range between the late 18th century and early 20th century, many pieces of badly rusted iron work and some glass bottles. Significant finds were an almost complete horse saddle girth with its buckle, a large amount of clay pipe stems and bowls and a particularly interesting plate. The saddle girth was found at the northern end of the western range within a possible brick stall suggesting that this end may have been stabling. Although clay pipes are a usual find from Victorian sites there were only a few pieces coming out of the large trenches over the building remains. However, a small hand dug trench to the south west of the site that contained no physical archaeological remains yielded a large amount of stems and bowls and this became known as the ‘smokers corner’.

The most fascinating pieces of pottery came from the large trenches over the southern and eastern ranges, and intrinsically of little value, were eventually fitted together and formed at least two separate plates. What was their true value was only revealed on completing the reconstruction when it revealed that these plates had the nursery rhyme ‘Hey Diddle Diddle the Cat and the Fiddle’. An early 20th century photograph of the farmhouse had been found during the archive research of the site that depicted three young girls stood outside the farmhouse and it would be nice to think that these plates were these girls’ dinner plates.

The true story of the success of the first DGM excavation lies in the numbers of volunteers and school children who attended the site. There were 225 day placements taken by the adult volunteers which were taken up by 91 different people. Of these 91 people, mainly from the local area or within 5 miles of the site, 59 were people who had never been on an archaeological project.

Educationally we had in excess of 280 school children spending half a day on the site taking part in structured exercises that included excavation, geophysics and finds analysis. These children were mainly of primary school age but one group was from a secondary school and one from the local sixth form college. Also we had 14 students from Priestly Sixth Form College who came for a full day on site. These students were studying for their ‘A’ Level in archaeology. Four of these students also spent several days of their ‘down time’ from college to come and increase and improve their fieldwork skills independently.

Other educationally connected volunteers included three undergraduates and three graduates of archaeology taking the opportunity to improve their skills. Finally, we had a group of ten people from the University of the Third Age whose enthusiasm was difficult to beat.

The first excavation of Dig Greater Manchester at Etherstone Hall in Leigh was a success in many ways. The number of adult volunteers given the chance to be involved in investigating their heritage reached our hoped for targets, as did the number of schools places. We had an extra school attend who had missed out on booking an arranged site visit and they were very grateful. Other education successes were the involvement of a 6th Form College whose students were studying for the fieldwork module for their ‘A’ Level in Archaeology and last but not least, the group of University of the Third Age (U3A) had a wonderful time and have asked to be involved in further excavations and community projects.

Ian West, one of the volunteers from the local area said to a reporter from the Manchester Evening News “I’ve always been fascinated by local history. I had always thought that you need to be a professional to be allowed access a historic site so getting the chance has been incredible” (M.E.N. 17th March 2012)

The archaeology was not bad either.

Brian Grimsditch